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Ph. (574) 825-4800  |  Fax (574) 825-5182  |  1013 Elroy Drive, Middlebury, Indiana 46540
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Frequently Asked Questions

Solar Energy Questions

What's the difference between solar electric and solar thermal?
Is my area really sunny enough for solar?
How do I know if my house is good for solar?
What size PV system do I need to run my whole house?
Are solar panels heavy and put holes in my roof?
What happens during a power outage?
Should I wait for technology to improve the solar efficiency?

Wind Energy Questions

How do I know if my house is good for wind?
What size wind turbine do I need to power my house?
Are small wind turbines safe?
Can I mount a wind turbine on my building?
What should I watch out for when buying a small wind system?
What happens during a power outage?

Money Questions

How much does a renewable energy system cost?
Does it really make sense to spend so much? It's just not affordable for me.
What can I expect as far as system payback? Will it increase my property value?
Why shouldn't I just buy it all online?
What kinds of incentives are available?
How do I connect to the grid? Will my utility pay me for excess energy?

Questions on Choosing a Contractor

How do I choose a renewable energy contractor?
How do I choose among competing bids?

Miscellaneous Questions

Do I need a generator or batteries?
What kinds of permits and inspections are required for a renewable energy system?
I'm ready for a renewable energy system. Now what?

Additional Resources


Solar Energy Questions

What's the difference between solar electric and solar thermal?
Solar electricity is photovoltaic (PV) energy. PV means the ability to convert light directly into electricity and using it to power appliances, computers, lights, etc., which reduces the amount of electricity you need to purchase from your power company. Solar thermal is about capturing heat from the sun and using it to heat a home and water, which reduces the amount of gas or electricity your water heater consumes. Both are excellent, viable solutions and can be utilized together or separately. We are happy to help you determine what will work best for your budget and needs. See our Solar Electricity and Solar Thermal pages for more specific information on each.

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Is my area really sunny enough for solar?
YES! PV systems can generate power in all types of weather. On partly cloudy days, they can turn out as much as 80% of their potential energy, and on extremely overcast days, they can still produce about 25% of their maximum output. If you live in an area with a changing climate and snow, don’t worry! PV modules are relatively unaffected and are actually more efficient in colder weather! Panels are angled to catch the sun, so any snow that collects melts fairly quickly.

A system in Southern Florida produces only about 15% more power than a system of the same size in Northern Indiana! And the Indiana system will out-produce the Florida system 1/3 of the year because PV panels are more efficient in cooler temperatures! (This information is determined by actual numbers from the NREL's PVWatts calculator for two 4 kW systems.)

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How do I know if my house is good for solar?
For roof solar systems, a south-facing slope is best with little to no shading from trees or other buildings structures (and don't forget to consider the future growth of small saplings that you may have planted nearby). Solar arrays can also be installed on ground racks and free-standing poles, with or without trackers which follow the sun across the sky East to West during the day, and if you have a dual axis tracker, North to South through the year as well. We also need to consider how much space is available. —On the roof or ground, you need adequate space that is not shaded, currently or by future growth of trees or building developments.

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What size PV system do I need to run my whole house?
There is no “one size fits all” PV system. —People commonly say "my home/business is x square feet, how big of a system do I need?" or "what size system do I need to power x appliances?" Instead, we need to know how much electricity do you use on average, and how much of that would you like to offset.

The first step really though, is to reduce your consumption through energy efficiency, in appliances, insulation, etc. The less that you consume, the smaller and cheaper the system that you will need to offset your consumption. Likewise, it is important that you do not oversize the system. You do not get paid for your overproduction. Generally, we try to size a system equal to or less than your annual consumption.

1 kW of installed PV panels will produce about 1,300 kWh (kilowatt-hours) of clean electricity annually. 1 kilowatt of installed PV panels will generate about $156 of clean electricity annually at $.12 per kWh. Your electric utility bills you by the kWh, so this is where we begin when determining the size of PV system you will need to "run your whole house." But these "whole house" systems are the costliest, and you can always start smaller to offset your use and add to it later. (Note: 1,000 kW = 1 kW; a kilowatt is the rate of use at this moment - a unit of power, a kilowatt-hour is the total energy used over time - a unit of energy. So a heater rated at 1000 watts or 1 kilowatt, operating for one hour uses one kilowatt-hour of energy, and a 100 watt light bulb operating 24 / 7 for 4 weeks, on for 672 hours total, used 67.2 kilowatt hours of energy.)

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Are solar panels heavy and put holes in my roof?
A PV solar array is less than 5 lbs. per square foot, so a typically framed roof is more than adequate to hold the weight. We mount panels on a purpose-built aluminum rail system, fastened about every 6' by penetrations into the roof rafters. —On asphalt roofs, each mount is sealed with 50-year silicone sealant to prevent leaks. On a standing seam metal roof, attachments are made directly to the standing seams so there is no roof penetrations. We have not had any leaks due to PV mountings.

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What happens during a power outage?
With a grid connected solar PV system, the inverter will automatically disconnect itself from the utility grid when there is a power outage. This is to prevent back feeding the grid and putting engineers working to restore power in danger. But if you have a grid connected PV system with battery back-up, it will automatically switch to back-up power with little detection. Both systems will automatically hook back up to grid once power is restored. While batteries can be useful, they are also expensive and are more often utilized in off-grid systems.

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Should I wait for technology to improve solar efficiency?
The solar industry projects that 2-3% of additional efficiency may be added for a solar module over the next 10-15 years which is insignificant. You can invest in a high quality system that is warranted for 25 years and has a life expectancy of 50 years.

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Wind Energy Questions

How do I know if my house is good for wind?
Commercial wind systems and wind farms are excellent investments. For home installations, you must live in an area with average annual wind speeds of at least 4.0 - 4.5 meters per second (9-10 miles per hour). Local building codes or covenants must allow you to legally erect a wind turbine on your property. Consider obstacles that might block the wind in the future (large planned developments or saplings, for example). And if you plan to be off-grid, you must account for the intermittent nature of wind power and have a strategy for using intermittent resources to meet your power needs.

A "hybrid" system utilizing both solar and wind is an excellent choice for seasonal states like Indiana. Solar is produced most at the hottest part of the day and year, in the summer. Wind is strongest in the winter months and at night, so together they create a sustainable energy solution and would work well for an off-grid situation. See our Wind Energy information page for more specific evaluative questions when considering wind or hybrid systems.

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What size wind turbine do I need to power my house?
There is no "one size fits all" solution when it comes to wind power. The actual size required to power a home will vary greatly, anywhere from 2 kW to 10 kW, depending most on how much energy is used and energy efficiency, average wind speeds and the turbine's height above ground (which greatly affects productivity - not the number of square feet in the home! Because height is so critical to production, we generally do not recommend a tower less than 80 ft. (about twice the heigh of a telephone pole).

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Are small wind turbines safe?
Yes. But uneasy neighbors may raise all sorts of questions about safety about a nearby homeowner installing a small wind turbine. Common questions include:

  • Falling tower - Thousands of wind turbines are installed in the U.S. with excellent track records. Trees are much more likely to fall than a properly installed wind turbine, which is why safety and stability are our priority.
  • Rotor blades throw ice - Ice build-up makes wind turbine blades heavier and less aerodynamic, therefore they turn more slowly. Typically, ice drops to the base of the turbine tower instead of being thrown.
  • Children climbing the tower and falling - Possible, but wind turbines should be treated no differently than other structures like water towers or amateur radio antennas which can also be climbed.

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Can I mount a wind turbine on my building?
This is a common question and the best answer is, while it can be done, it is generally not recommended.

If you are going to mount a turbine on a roof then you have to consider some issues, which are more prevalent than with a mast mounted one:

  • There will be increased turbulence and this will result in higher stresses on the turbine and lower energy capture for any given wind speed.
  • There may be more people living and working near the turbine so increased margins of safety need to be applied, and lower noise generated.
  • Extra measures may need to be taken to limit the transmission of vibrations into the structure of the building which likely was not built to handle a turbine.
  • The average wind speed in a town or city environment will be a lot less than in a similar rural location, and this will significantly reduce the annual energy capture.

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What happens during a power outage?
With a grid connected small wind system, the inverter will automatically disconnect itself from the utility grid when there is a power outage. This is to prevent back feeding the grid and putting engineers working to restore power in danger. But if you have a grid connected wind system with battery back-up, it will automatically switch to back-up power with little detection. Both systems will automatically hook back up to grid once power is restored. While batteries can be useful, they are also expensive and are more often utilized in off-grid systems.

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What should I watch out for when buying a small wind system?
—Most popular small wind turbine models operate at approximatly the same efficiency. If you are offered a product that promises to run your whole house with a much smaller turbine than conventional products, ask some hard questions! See American Wind Energy Association's "Advice from an Expert" with Mick Sagrillo for Questions Any Small Wind Turbine Manufacturer Should Be Willing and Able to Answer About Their Products. This is an excellent resource to check out before talking with manufacturer's or installers, with questions like "How many of the turbines you sold are still running?" (notice it's not "how many turbines have you sold") and "How long have you or your company been in business?" And again, AWEA's small wind FAQ advises that “If it seems too good to be true, it probably is… Sometimes the claimed performance violates the laws of physics, promising more power than the total kinetic energy available in the wind stream that is intercepted by the rotor's swept area.” And as always, get references from prior satisfied customers!

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Money Questions

How much does a renewable energy system cost?
There are several components to the costs, including the cost of the system itself, installation, the cost of interconnection if applicable, and maintenance. Typically, solar electric and wind systems cost on average $5 to $8 per watt installed, not including interconnection and maintenance. With moving parts, wind generators usually require more maintenance than solar systems. Like a car, regular maintenance and system’s checks are recommended to keep all equipment in optimal working order, but it is not required. Financing a residential renewable energy system can be an attractive alternative for many homeowners. In some cases, customers can even realize a positive cash flow from day one, as the money saved on their electricity bill is greater than the monthly payment for their system!

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Does it really make sense to spend so much? It's just not affordable for me.
You are actually affording it already. If you currently spend $200 a month on electricity, that's $2400 a year or $24,000 over the next 10 years. Then factor in a conservative yearly increase of 4.5% (national average based on PUC-public utilities commission), you will have spent $35,677 with no return on your dollars. If you spend that amount on a solar or wind energy system, either upfront of through financing, at least you will get a return on your investment.

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What can I expect as far as system payback? Will it increase my property value?
A system's payback time depends on individual circumstances. Payback measures the years before capital is recovered through savings. Solar and wind have a long payback, but this is better than grid-supplied energy, which has no payback at all! Users like that the system reduces the amount of electricity they purchase from the utility each month, as well as the fact that renewable energy systems consume no fuel and generate no pollution, along with numerous other benefits. Primary fossil energy costs are rising, as well as residential electricity rates, and tax incentives and rebates have made it financially attractive for corporations and individuals to invest in renewable energy systems.

We typically look at 30 years of operation to calculate expected returns on both solar and wind. Though estimating energy prices is not an exact science, we can expect that over the next 20 years, rates will increase 6-9 percent per year. This means that the value of the electricity provided increases significantly over a 30 year period. This long of a payback can be troubling to some people as they may not intend to live in the house for that long. But, like a kitchen or bathroom remodel, an investment in a solar or wind energy system will add to the value of the home, with a higher return than a renovation. A study from the Appraisal Institute found that, depending on your location and rates, for every $1 that you save annually in electric costs, your home value goes up $10 - $20!

Solar thermal systems operate a bit differently, but for a household of 4, the price of a full system may not be too much more than a new electric or gas system. Depending on your location and current hot water use the annual electricity or gas savings will differ. However in a normal household that spends 25% of its electricity bill on hot water heating, the cost of the purchase may be recovered in as few as 5-6 years in reduced bills. You will definitely make considerable savings during the life of the solar hot water heater.

On average, if you install a solar water heater, your water heating bills should drop 50%–80%. Because the sun is free, you’re protected from future
fuel shortages and price hikes. If you’re building a new home or refinancing, the economics are even more attractive. Including the price of a solar water heater in a new 30-year mortgage usually amounts to between $13 and $20 per month. The federal income tax deduction for mortgage interest attributable to the solar system reduces that by about $3–$5 per month. So if your fuel savings are more than $15 per month, the solar investment is profitable immediately. On a monthly basis, you’re saving more than you’re paying!

Interestingly, the payback question is typically not asked of our other purchases. Your current water heater or electrical system will never "pay off," while solar and wind systems will. We don't ask a salesperson what the "payback period" is for a new boat or car. What we spend our money on ultimately comes down to individual priorities and preferences.

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Why shouldn't I just buy it all online?
Sometimes you can get a good, legitimate deal. But in purchasing a deal online, you often get product from a person who may never have installed a solar panel or wind generator. Therefore, after you purchase from them you are completely on your own without the customer service to even call and ask questions on how to install. If in 2-3 years you need warranty or service, they may not even be in business to help you. Too often, these cheap online stores will sell you the product, send the PO to the manufacturer and will never touch the product.

You want to compare the shipping costs and make sure they actually have availability and that the products are not seconds. Be aware that they are not usually selling you any of the miscellaneous components, and those can add up faster than you may expect! Home Energy is a full service contractor, and while we hope to work with you on your project, we ultimately encourage you to make the decision that is the best for you, as you will be the one making the investment and living with it. It's also prudent to note that in order to qualify for some government-funded incentives, you may be required to work with a certified installer.

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What kinds of incentives are available?
Tax incentives, rebates and grants have made it financially attractive for corporations and individuals to invest in renewable energy. Specific incentives vary greatly across the nation. See the Database of State Incentives for Renewable's & Efficiency (DSIRE) for comprehensive information on state, local, utility, and federal incentives and policies that are available in your area. As of January 2009, the federal tax credit is a full 30%!

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What can I expect as far as system payback? Will it increase my property value?
A system's payback time depends on individual circumstances. Payback measures the years before capital is recovered through savings. Solar and wind have a long payback, but this is better than grid-supplied energy, which has no payback at all! Users like that the system reduces the amount of electricity they purchase from the utility each month, as well as the fact that renewable energy systems consume no fuel and generate no pollution, along with numerous other benefits. Primary fossil energy costs are rising, as well as residential electricity rates, and tax incentives and rebates have made it financially attractive for corporations and individuals to invest in renewable energy systems.

We typically look at 30 years of operation to calculate expected returns on both solar and wind. Though estimating energy prices is not an exact science, we can expect that over the next 20 years, rates will increase 6-9 percent per year. This means that the value of the electricity provided increases significantly over a 30 year period. This long of a payback can be troubling to some people as they may not intend to live in the house for that long. But, like a kitchen or bathroom remodel, an investment in a solar or wind energy system will add to the value of the home, with a higher return than a renovation. A study from the Appraisal Institute found that, depending on your location and rates, for every $1 that you save annually in electric costs, your home value goes up $10 - $20!

Solar thermal systems operate a bit differently, but for a household of 4, the price of a full system may not be too much more than a new electric or gas system. Depending on your location and current hot water use the annual electricity or gas savings will differ. However in a normal household that spends 25% of its electricity bill on hot water heating, the cost of the purchase may be recovered in as few as 5-6 years in reduced bills. You will definitely make considerable savings during the life of the solar hot water heater.

On average, if you install a solar water heater, your water heating bills should drop 50%–80%. Because the sun is free, you’re protected from future
fuel shortages and price hikes. If you’re building a new home or refinancing, the economics are even more attractive. Including the price of a solar water heater in a new 30-year mortgage usually amounts to between $13 and $20 per month. The federal income tax deduction for mortgage interest attributable to the solar system reduces that by about $3–$5 per month. So if your fuel savings are more than $15 per month, the solar investment is profitable immediately. On a monthly basis, you’re saving more than you’re paying!

Interestingly, the payback question is typically not asked of our other purchases. Your current water heater or electrical system will never "pay off," while solar and wind systems will. We don't ask a salesperson what the "payback period" is for a new boat or car. What we spend our money on ultimately comes down to individual priorities and preferences.

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How do I connect to the grid? Will my utility pay me for excess energy?
Grid-tied systems harness the energy from the sun and/or wind and connect to your existing electrical system through a standard meter.Home Energy can add an individual grid-tied system to your existing buildings or integrate it into new construction. Direct current produced by solar panels or wind generators is converted by an inverter into 120VAC alternating current that matches the public utility company’s power. The building is then provided with power. If the system produces more current than the building requires, the remainder is pushed back out onto the grid and, in a net metering arrangement only, is purchased by the utility company (Example 1). If enough power is not produced to meet the facility’s needs, for example during extended cloudy periods, additional power is purchased from the utility company (Example 2).

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A grid-tied system does not automatically mean that you have the ability to sell power back to your utility. Many states and utilities net meter. Unfortunately, it is not required of all utilities and the actual practices vary by utility and state. Check www.dsire.org to see what is available in your region.

Net metering is a billing arrangement between the utility company and a customer with a grid-tied renewable energy system. After your system is installed and has passed its electrical inspection, the utility will come to your home and switch out your existing utility meter for a net meter which keeps track of energy flowing to and from your utility provider. If your system produces more electricity than is required, your meter will run backwards! If your system does not generate enough, electricity will be pulled from the utility grid. You are billed only for your net energy usage.

This offset means that customers receive retail prices for the excess electricity they generate. Without net metering, a second meter is usually installed to measure the electricity that flows back to the provider, with the provider purchasing the power at a rate much lower than the retail rate. Net metering is a low-cost, easily administered method of encouraging customer investment in renewable energy technologies. Providers may also benefit from net metering because when customers are producing electricity during peak periods, the system load factor is improved.

Net Meter Credit                                                            Net Meter charge

100 kWh
Generated
-
200 kWh
Used
=
+100 kWh
Charge
Example 2: More is used than is generated, meter spins forward and the utility charges the difference
100 kWh
Generated
-
50 kWh
Used
=
50 kWh
Credit
Example 1: More is generated than used, meter spins backwards and the utility issues a credit

 

 

 

Net meter even balance

100 kWh
Generated
-
100 kWh
Used
=
0 kWh
No Charge or Credit
Example 3: The same amount of energy is generated as is used, so the meter reads 0 kWh

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Questions on Choosing a Contractor

How do I choose a renewable energy contractor?
Here are some important considerations:

  • Experience & Longevity
    • Have they been in business very long and how many projects have been completed?— A good portfolio of satisfied customers says a lot. An extremely low price might mean that the contractor is losing money while installing a photovoltaic solar system, and you want a contractor that will be around in case you have issues with your system. Get references!
  • Specialization & Credentials
    • You of course want to select a competent contractor for your installation. One industry veteran suggests that "If you think you know more than your contractor, maybe you should be thinking about another contractor." (Photon US Magazine) Generally, the best wind and solar contractors do wind and solar designs and installations exclusively. Electrical contractors may specialize in other types of electrical work, but they generally do not have the expertise to do correct solar and wind assessments and designs. (The majority of our national electrical systems use alternating current (AC), but PV and wind systems produce direct current (DC), with different characteristics than AC and therefore different skills and techniques to safely install and maintain.) Ask your contractor whether he is NABCEP certified – this is an important industry certification that only the best solar contractors have, and it indicates that the contractor has taken a difficult test certifying his ability to design PV systems.
  • Licensing & Insurance
    • Does the company have an electrical license? Licensed installers should be able to deal with the city on permits and inspections. Make sure they have liability insurance, which protects you from mishaps. Chances are the contractor is missing something if they're offering an extremely low price, and insurance is likely the missing component.
  • Guarantee
    • A guarantee that the system will produce within the estimated yearly yield in kWh should be standard. If a solar installer won't guarantee system yield within 5% - 10% of estimated yield for your area's irradiation levels, it has nothing to do with the amount of sun at your installation and shows more that they do not understand the fundamentals of solar energy.
  • If it sounds “too good to be true” – it is!—
    • Time and again people say "well, my contractor said I'd have no electric bill, but wind/solar just doesn't work!" But this just isn't the case! Those contractors wanted a sale so they tell you what you want to hear, and this speaks to the motivation of the company for being in the renewable energy industry - to make a buck!

Being a contractor, we are of course a little biased! But we have your best interests in mind. We really do. We have been in the renewable energy industry for more than a decade, and the truth is that not every application will work at every site, and our promise to you is that we will not try to sell you something if it is not right for you. That is why we evaluate every individual's electricity use, the proposed site and surrounding fixtures. We know that you can't put a 50' wind turbine 30' away from a building and expect good yield any more than you can put a solar panel in the shade and see results! Installations for the sake of installing, like these, set back progress for all renewable energy, and we'd much rather start with the plain old honest truth!

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How do I choose among competing bids?
A good renewable energy contractor:

  • —Will give an estimate (or range) of size wind or solar electric or solar thermal system is appropriate for your home – and give a detailed, formal proposal/bid/estimate in writing for an operational installed system
  • Will give energy savings and environmental benefits that you can expect based on the information you provide.
  • —After reviewing the bid it should be very clear what is and is not included.
  • Will include financial information in the proposal - like cash-flow analysis, payback time and savings estimates. Find out what information the installer is working with and then double check it - remember that while informative, it is coming from the installer.

You can evaluate bids in a number of ways - costs, service warranties, customer service, handling of rebates, availability, years of experience or other qualifications. Price should not be your only consideration and the lowest cost bid is not necessarily the best one. Companies planning to stay in business must charge enough for their products and services to cover their costs, plus a fair profit margin. Paying a little more at the onset is not as bad as dealing with a poorly designed and installed system in the long run.

Most of the time, competing project bids will vary less than 5%. Remember, price is not as important a factor as trust. You want to have confidence that the company will stand behind its installation for at least two years, and hopefully twenty. If you find a contractor offering an extremely low price, chances are he is missing something, and insurance is likely the missing component. A low price might mean that the contractor is losing money while installing a system. You want a contractor that will be around in case you have issues with your wind or solar system.

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Miscellaneous Questions

Do I need a generator or batteries?
Not in a grid-tied system. When you are connected to the grid, the utility basically stores the electricity that you produce. When the sun doesn't shine or the wind doesn't blow, you then use the power from the utility. A generator or batteries can be added, most frequently in situations where power is lost frequently or where it is critical that power remains on. They are expensive additions and the system must be designed and approved for use to prevent back-feeding to the grid which can be dangerous to linemen working to restore power.

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What kinds of permits and inspections are required for a renewable energy system?
Requirements vary, but you should check with your county planning or permitting department to find out about zoning regulations and permit requirements for renewable energy systems on your property. Before you invest too much time and money, research potential legal and environmental obstacles. Particularly for wind generators, some jurisdictions, for example, restrict the height of the structures permitted in residentially zoned areas, although variances are often obtainable. Your neighbors might object to a wind machine that blocks their view, or they might be concerned about noise. We can assist you in obtaining permits from your local officials.

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I'm ready for a renewable energy system. Now what?
Congratulations! As a full service renewable energy contractor, Home Energy will work with you every step of the way. Our certified, experienced team can design, install and maintain your new renewable energy system. Our unique 5-Step Smart Process ensures that you will receive the care and service that you deserve. Contact us by email or phone (574) 825-4800 to begin the exciting process of generating your own sustainable energy!

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About Solar

About Wind

Free Evaluation and Financial Analysis

Free Solar and Wind Estimator

Links & Downloads:

Home Energy Brochure (3MB)
Educational Presentation (10MB)
Technical Presentation (7MB)

Benefits of Solar & Wind

Additional Resources:

Federal & State

Database of State Incentives for Renewable's & Efficiency (DSIRE)

Indiana Office of Energy Development

National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

US Dept. of Energy - Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy

US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

Associations & Organizations

American Solar Energy Society (ASES)

American Wind Energy Association (AWEA)

Green Energy Ohio (GEO)

Indiana Renewable Energy Association (InREA)

Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC)

Network for New Energy Choices

North American Board of Energy Practitioners (NABCEP)

Online News & Articles

Homepower Magazine

Indiana Living Green

Renewable Energy World News

Wind-Works.org

OnGrid Solar & Andy Black solar financial analyst
"Payback" article (July 2009, 1.3MB pdf)
"Why Is a Solar Electric Home Worth More?" (July 2004, 332KB

      NABCEP Certified Solar Installer Leon Bontrager


"And thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind, and with all thy strength: this is the first commandment.
And the second is like namely this, Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself. There is none other commandment greater than these." Mark 12:30-31

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